So which one is it? A stonefish or a scorpionfish?

by   Profile Ivana and Janez   When 24th July 2018
Scorpion fish1-photo by Janez Kranjc, model Ivana OK (Large)
Scorpion fish-photo by Ivana OK (Large)
Stone fish on the coral reef-photo by Ivana OK (Large)

I often get confused between stonefish and scorpionfish and need to remind myself what the differences between them are. Both belong to the order Scorpaeniformes – mail-cheeked fishes - including 36 families and over 1,600 species such as lionfish, gurnards and even the cute (in my opinion) lumpsuckers.

While stonefish are highly venomous and considered the world’s most venomous fish with a killer sting, scorpionfish do not share this killer reputation, even though a sting with their less potent venom is not pleasant either. Both fish are hard to spot and avoid, making them dangerous to divers, swimmers and snorkelers, but they are a photographers dream when they are finally located as they do not scare easily.

There are several features that both fish share, but several that distinguish the two. Stonefish disguise themselves very well by burying themselves in the sand (looking like a rock, hence the name stonefish) while scorpionfish have fantastic camouflaging ability and are able to replicate the pattern of their surroundings. They are so confident of their camouflaging skills that they will not move when approached, only moving their eyes to inspect a threat. They have a “sit and wait” strategy, grabbing whatever comes along that looks tasty enough to eat, but scorpionfish are much more skittish while stonefish will only move away slowly when disturbed.

Both have characteristic spines on their dorsal fins that contain venom inside which causes excruciating pain and damage to an unsuspecting victim. Stonefish spines, however, are positioned much more prominently than on a scorpion fish dorsal fin, and they are thicker. Their tails also differ, with the stonefish tail curled to one side, whereas the scorpionfish has a straight tail. Both fish have large heads with armoured bony plates and spines and a bony ridge across their cheeks, but a stonefish does not look like a fish from above but more like a rock, while the scorpionfish still looks like a fish.

Stonefish eyes are smaller and hard to notice while scorpionfish eyes stick out as if on stalks, positioned a bit further down the body. Both have a very wide mouth that can swallow surprisingly large prey such as crustaceans and fish in one go. Neither of them is a particularly good looking fish, but the stonefish always looks as if it were in a bad mood, whereas scorpionfish seem in much better form, almost smiling. As they live on the seafloor, both have no swim bladder, and both reproduce by laying orange clusters of eggs among seaweed and rocks. Stonefish can grow up to 40cm long and are bigger than scorpionfish.

So, if you see a fish that looks like a stone, it’s probably a scorpionfish, as stonefish are really hard to spot - don't try to find out though, as even though they are not aggressive, stonefish venom can kill you. Scorpionfish venom is still more than unpleasant -  either way, you’re at a loss and the injured party.

Text by: Bogna Griffin, BSc (Hons) Freshwater and Marine Biology, Ireland

Photos by  Ivana O.K. and Janez Kranjc

Gear used: Flexa wetsuit, Bolt SLS BCD, X-Vision mask, DCTV Canister Light

Written by
Profile Ivana and Janez
When 24th July 2018
Location GMIT, Galway, Irlanda

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ปั้มไลค์ on Jul 05th 2020
Like!! I blog frequently and I really thank you for your content. The article has truly peaked my interest.
Carlos on Apr 28th 2020
After of read all your post. I think that you know more than me 😂😂😂, but I will try to help you. Just you said in the post: "but a stonefish does not look like a fish from above but more like a rock, while the scorpionfish still looks like a fish". That's right. Scorpionfish is long and Stonefish seems a ball. But if you have doubts yet, the eyes is the main difference. Scorpionfish has the eyes in every side of his head but Stonefish has his eyes embedded in the middle of his head. The half of the body of Stonefish is head, for this reason seems a ball but the Scorpionfish is head is the 20% of his body. The first pic (that you appear) is a Stonefish. The second pic is a Scorpionfish. Another difference is that normally Stonefish has 13 venom dorsal spines and Scorpionfish 10-11.

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